LINGUISTICS & CULTURE
|Data:||06/DEZ/2009 1:28 AM|
|Assunto:||diferença entre gerundio e participio|
The present participle in English has the same form as the gerund
(sleeping- gerund sleeping - verb)
but the gerund acts as a noun rather than a verb or a modifier.
Yeah, what define a noun? sometimes is the fact of coming after a verb, just like in the sentence: Your job description does not include sleeping.
You may have abstract nouns and proper nouns, in the above sentence, you have an abstract noun. Some books says it is a VERBAL NOUN, since it comes after a verb. This way it is the subject of the phrase, in the above example sleeping is 'dormir' [não inclui dormir (the subject of the sentence).
But, like a verb he can takes an object: He likes reading books. (source - New Lower Cambridge English; Linton Stone]
Hmm, the same book says that the gerund (ING), may be used as the subject, the object or the complement (after the verb "to be") of a verb. Ex.:
subj - Reading is pleasant.
obj - He likes reading.
complement - All he likes is reading.
In these three instances reading is translated into 'ler', so in this way it is not a verb, and doesn´t takes pronouns before it (like I, you, he etc).
A hint the book offer is:
- An ING form showing the fact of something is usually a gerund.
- An ING form showing the act of something is usually a participle.
Swimming is an excelent exercise. (swimming is a fact of life here) ....so, a gerund phrase
The man waiting for the bus lost his temper (waiting is an act of the man in question)...so, a participial phrase.
Keeping bees is a useful hobby. (keeping is a fact of life, said in a general way...thus, a gerund phrase.)
He saw me fishing for salmon in the river. (not a fact of life, but an act of mine, an particular act 'mine', so it is my ACTion at the play. Hence, a participial phrase)
Reading is pleasant. (gerund phrase, the fact of reading is pleasant, reading in no particular case.)
She saw me reading a book yesterday. (participial phrase.)
Examples, except the last one, are from the New Lower Cambridge English, the comments are mine (so from my impressions, if EMB visitors see any mistake or misleading hint, please, let us know.) In other words, show us the right path.
Give the study of Participle and Gerund a whirl, okay? it is important to tell one from the other. Practice and study is the name of the game.
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