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Autor:  PPAULO
E-mail:  não-disponível
Data:  12/DEZ/2009 6:15 PM
Assunto:  'towards'
 
Mensagem: 

Right on, Marcio.

Some more on the subject.

http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/594/02/
In other cases "to" is used as an ordinary preposition.
Verbs of communication: listen, speak (but not tell), relate, appeal (in the sense of 'plead,' not 'be attractive')
Verbs of movement: move, go, transfer, walk/run/swim/ride/drive/ fly, travel
Except for transfer, all the verbs in listed here can take toward as well as to. However, "to" suggests movement toward a specific destination, while "toward" suggests movement in a general direction, without necessarily arriving at a destination:
Additional Examples:
The plane was headed toward a storm cloud.
(It was headed in the direction of a storm cloud; it may not have reached or flown through the cloud.)
Drive toward the city limits and turn north.
(Drive in the direction of the city limits; turnoff may be before arriving there.)
Take me to the airport, please.
(I actually want to arrive at the airport.)

========================
http://www.eslcafe.com/grammar/prepositions07.html
Prepositions #7:
Using To and Toward for Places
 
 The preposition to is another common preposition
of place. It is normally used with a verb showing
movement and shows the result of the movement--
the place or person that the movement was toward
or in the direction of. The preposition toward
has a similar meaning, but it's not exactly the same:
with toward, the direction of the movement is
shown, but not the result.
A <====== to ====== B
(B arrived at A)
A <==== toward ==== B
(B is on the way to A)
A ====== to ======> B
(A arrived at B)
A ==== toward ====> B
(A is on the way to B)

Examples
Jamil walks to work every day.
When I saw Jamil, he was walking toward his office.
They'll drive to San Francisco during the weekend.
They started driving toward San Francisco Friday
afternoon, but they didn't arrive there until Saturday.
Yesterday Billy rode his bicycle to the park.
When Billy was riding his bicycle toward the park,
he stopped at Joey's house.

_____________________________________
Special Note:
To is actually more general than toward and can
be used instead of toward. Toward cannot be
used instead of to, however:
same:
When I saw Jamil, he was walking toward
his office. / When I saw Jamil he was walking
to his office
different:
Jamil walks to work every day. / Jamil walks
toward work every day.
same:
When Billy was riding his bicycle toward the park,
he stopped at Joey's house. / When Billy was riding
his bicycle to the park, he stopped at Joey's house.
different:
Yesterday Bilyl rode his bicycle to the park. /
Yesterday Billy rode his bicycle toward the park. 


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 English Made in Brazil -- English, Portuguese, & contrastive linguistics
'towards'  –  student  11/DEZ/2009, 4:10 PM
'towards'  –  also student  11/DEZ/2009, 5:19 PM
'towards'  –  PPAULO  11/DEZ/2009, 5:40 PM
'towards'  –  PPAULO  11/DEZ/2009, 5:47 PM
'towards'  –  Chestnuts  11/DEZ/2009, 5:56 PM
'towards'  –  PPAULO  11/DEZ/2009, 6:58 PM
'towards'  –  Fran  11/DEZ/2009, 7:39 PM
'towards'  –  Márcio Farias  12/DEZ/2009, 4:27 PM
 'towards'  –  PPAULO  12/DEZ/2009, 6:15 PM
'towards'  –  PPAULO  12/DEZ/2009, 6:16 PM
'towards'  –  Márcio Farias  12/DEZ/2009, 8:39 PM
'towards'  –  PPAULO  13/DEZ/2009, 12:28 AM

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