LINGUISTICS & CULTURE
|Data:||02/SET/2010 6:36 PM|
|Assunto:||Inglês para surdos|
Falava-se um idioma de sinais entre muitas tribos nos EUA pelos "plains" (pampas). Era um lingua franca, usada para trocar e comunicar em geral. Discuti o idioma com surdos norteamericanos, e eles entenderam muitos dos sinais que mostrei para eles, sobretudo os sinias para os nomes de bichos. Wikipedia pode explica-lo muito melhor do que eu.
Acho interessante que o coronel A. Custer, que matou tantos indios e foi morto por eles em 1876, dominava o idioma. Convesava com os caciques sem interprete.
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wikipedia - History
PISL's antecedents, if any, are unknown, due to lack of written records, but the earliest records of contact between Europeans and Native Americans of the Gulf Coast region in what is now Texas and northern Mexico note a fully formed sign language already in use by the Europeans' arrival there. These records include the accounts of Cabeza de Vaca in 1527 and Coronado in 1541.
As a result of several factors, including the massive depopulation and the Americanization of Native North Americans, the number of PISL signers declined from European arrival onward. In 1885, it was estimated that there were over 110,000 “sign-talking Indians”, including Blackfoot, Cheyenne, Sioux, Kiowa and Arapaho. By the 1960s, there remained a “very small percentage of this number”. There are few PISL signers today.
W.P. Clark who served in the United States Army on the northern plains during the Indian Wars was the author of The Indian Sign Language, first published in 1885, The Indian Sign Language with Brief Explanatory Notes of the Gestures Taught Deaf-Mutes in Our Institutions and a Description of Some of the Peculiar Laws, Customs, Myths, Superstitions, Ways of Living, Codes of Peace and War Signs, remains in print.
PISL is one of several varieties of Native American Indian Sign Language (NAISL), and early records were not careful to distinguish between these varieties. However, NAISL has been documented in use across at least 37 spoken language groups and 12 spoken language families The groups using the PISL variety were spread across an area of over 1 million square miles (2.6 million square kilometers).
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