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 LINGUISTICS & CULTURE


Autor:  André Oliveira
E-mail:  não-disponível
Data:  04/MAI/2005 11:41 AM
Assunto:  Re: canst
 
Mensagem:  Yep. Take a look at this article below. Source:http://home.unilang.org/main/wiki2/index.php/Introducing_Archaic_English Introduction For years people have read and learnt about Shakespeare, Byron...all these are writers and poets who have been read for years and years. Famous is their use of the words "thou", "thy" and these are also found often in the Bible. Now the most terrible thing is for people to start abusing and start misusing these terms. I shudder when I see people going "Thee is good" or even "Thou face is terrible to look at". It's done with good intention but with bad effects. Here in this short introduction to so-called Archaic English I will introduce you to some methods of writing Archaic English, the grammar involved, and some texts you can use for reference. [edit]Writing Archaic English: Oh, So How's Thou? Among the words that are so stereotyped and misused is the word "thou". This word is among the most common found in texts using Early Modern English and also one of the more misused ones. Below I will go through the usage of this little word. [edit]Thou "Thou", meaning "you", has cousins all over Indo-European languages. Consider German "Du" and compare with Early-Modern (EM) English "Thou". Close resemblance don't they? Closer than Modern (M) English "You", certainly. More importantly "thou" is only used under informal situations. Under formal situations use "you". "Thou", like many pronouns in IE languages other than English, is inflected, though only to a certain extent. Below I present the forms of "thou": thou Subject thou Object thee Possessive thy (before consonants); thine (before vowels) As a note, "thou" is the singular form of "you". To explain the above, "subject" refers to the use of "thou" as the subject, i.e. as in "Thou art beautiful" and "Thou sayest, that the man giveth people money.". The object form "thee" is used when the "you" being addressed is the receiver of a certain action, for example "What?! The cat hath robbed thee?!" or "I love thee like the crimson roses of the field." Finally, the possessive is used like the English "your" - e.g. "Thy face" and "Thine eyes". Note that "thine" is also used as the English "yours" - i.e. "Say to me, O traitor, is that thine?" [edit]Ye "Ye" is the plural form of "Thou", such as in "Hearken ye, O people of the village!" A warning, NEVER ever use "ye" in place of "the" - this is a complete misconception and misinterpretation of medieval texts in which a letter looking like "y" was used in place of þ pronounced like the "th" in "think" or "this". Saying something like "Ye Olde Store" is plain misinformation. The forms of "ye" are exactly as in M. English, i.e. the possessive is still "your", the accusative is still "you", etc. No change in that. [edit]Verbs In Archaic English, verbs more or less remain as they are, except some changes in the 2nd person and 3rd person forms. When you use the 2nd person singular the verb should end in "-(e)st". This is a rule. Therefore if you would like to translate "You say to me, that the king is the ruler of the palace." to Archaic English it would render "Thou sayest to me, that the king is the ruler of the palace.". Use "-st" if the verb stem should end in a vowel (thanks to Itlian_Mann for pointing out the typo!), for example "do -> dost" (as in "Dost thou love me, O Romeo? - and yes, it is NOT "Dost thou lovest me, O Romeo?", which is as grammatically incorrect as "Do you loves me, O Romeo?"). Otherwise attach "-st", e.g. make -> makest, and not makst, which is plainly strange. If you do find the pronunciation with "-est" weird, you can substitute "-est" with "'st". This often happens in poems when letters sometimes need to be cancelled off so as to ensure the proper rhyming and flow of the poem. In the 3rd person the verb ends in "-(e)th". Rules are similar to those for "-(e)st". An example would be "He knoweth, that the princess loveth her father most dearly." In the past tense, verbs remain as they are in M. English except 2nd person ones. "You said" renders as "Thou said'st". The "-st" goes after the past temporal "-(e)d" ending. Depending on your tastes you may or may not render it is "-est" or "-'st". There are some irregular verbs that should be taken note of. These include: is: 2nd person pres. art || 2nd person past wert have: 2nd person pres. hast || 3rd person pres. hath do: 2nd person pres. dost || 3rd person pres. doth


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 English Made in Brazil -- English, Portuguese, & contrastive linguistics
canst  –  Leila  04/MAI/2005, 10:49 AM
 Re: canst  –  André Oliveira  04/MAI/2005, 11:41 AM

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