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Autor:  pat
E-mail:  não-disponível
Data:  14/MAI/2003 9:43 PM
Assunto:  Re: Auxiliaries versus not
Mensagem:  Dear Jose, Yes, when the auxillary is eliminated and "not" simply follows the verb, there is an archaic or "old-fashioned" impression for the modern speaker. But as I mentioned earlier, it has the advantage of being quite emphatic, unambiguous - direct - as you say. It is more concise, and concision is always to be admired. "I judge not others" would be a rare thing to hear from a modern native speaker, but the meaning would nevertheless be very clear. "I think not" would be by far the most common example in modern usage. Less common but not unheard of are: "Be not" (Be not afraid, young fellow) "Speak not" (Speak not if you would hear) "Fear not" (Fear not, they will come) People will occasionally use these ancient constructions for dramatic effect. And you are right, that ubiquitous term "don't", is the very same ancient form: "Do not". When "don't" is used with another verb, as is almost always the case, it becomes redundant, a pointless adjunct. "Don't be afraid" means exactly the same thing as "Be not afraid", it just has one verb too many.

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 English Made in Brazil -- English, Portuguese, & contrastive linguistics
Auxiliaries versus not  –  José Roberto  14/MAI/2003, 2:40 PM
 Re: Auxiliaries versus not  –  pat  14/MAI/2003, 9:43 PM

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