LINGUISTICS & CULTURE
|Data:||25/OUT/2005 8:33 PM|
|Assunto:||Regras sufixos e prefixos|
Na verdade, existem várias regras que são bem pouco úteis. Elas
funcionam em vários casos, mas podem falhar bem quando você precisa. É
mais garantido aprender palavra por palavra. Só como curiosidade, vou
mandar algumas que eu achei:
-ible versus -able
If the root is not a complete word, add -ible: aud + ible = audible. Examples: visible, horrible, terrible, possible, edible, eligible, incredible, permissible. If the root is a complete word, add -able: accept + able = acceptable. Examples: fashionable, laughable, suitable, dependable, comfortable. If the root is a complete word ending in -e, drop the final -e and add -able: excuse - e+ able = excusable. Examples: advisable, desirable, valuable, debatable.
Double consonants before suffixes I
When a monosyllable ends in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel, you double the consonant before adding ing, ed, er, est. Examples: star, starring; tap, tapped; wrap, wrapper; big, biggest.
Double consonants before suffixes II
When a word of more than one syllable ends in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel, and when the accent is on the last syllable, you double the consonant before adding ing, ed, er, est. Examples: concur, concurring; commit, committed; forbid, forbidden; compel, compelling.
Drop the e
When a word ends in a consonant followed by a silent e, drop the e before you add ing. Examples: bribe, bribing; drive, driving; save, saving; urge, urging.
Keep the y before adding ing
When a word ends in y preceded by a consonant, keep the y before adding ing, but change the y to i before adding es or ed. Examples: cry, crying, cries, cried; reply, replying, replies, replied.
Use i before e except after c (usually)
With words in which ei or ie are pronounced like the ee in seem, use ei after c, and ie after other consonants. This will not apply if ei is pronounced like the a in late. Examples: receive, perceive; field, believe, niece, siege. There are, though, a number of exceptions to the rule: financier, neither, seize, weird. Other apparent exceptions are words such as: eight, freight, reign, sleigh. Note, however, that the letters ei are pronounced like a in late.
Know the sedes and ceeds
Only one word ends in sede: supersede. Only three words end in ceed: exceed, proceed, succeed. All other words ending with this pronunciation use cede: concede, precede, recede, etc.
ism forms nouns from other nouns (e.g. race/racism, organ/organism);
ist forms nouns or adjectives from nouns (e.g. tour/tourist, Buddha/Buddhist);
ful forms nouns or adjectives from nouns (e.g. spoon/spoonful, skill/skilful);
ation forms nouns from verbs (e.g. emigrate/emigration, civilise/civilisation);
ity forms nouns from adjectives (e.g. moral/morality, able/ability, rapid/rapidity);
ly forms adverbs from adjectives, (e.g. actual/actually, sincere/sincerely);
ise forms verbs from adjectives or nouns (e.g. normal/normalise, synchrony/synchronise).
Suffix starting with a or o
When you want to add a suffix starting with a or o leave the e in. Examples: manageable, noticeable, courageous.
Tinha uma regra que eu não achei sobre quando usar os prefixos dis- e des-. Alguém sabe? Tinha relação com a palavra original começar com vogal ou consoante, eu acho.
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