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Autor:  Marcelo
E-mail:  marbatis@hotmail.com
Data:  17/NOV/2005 9:15 PM
Assunto:  Soccer mom

 Soccer mom
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
In United States social, cultural and political discourse, soccer mom refers broadly to a demographic group of women with school-age children. A soccer mom is typically imagined as upper middle class, probably college-educated, most often suburban or exurban, and typically white.


Defining the soccer mom
The term is thought to have been coined by a woman running for city council in Denver, Colorado. When asked for her credentials, she replied: "soccer mom." It came into widespread use in the 1990s, notably during the 1992 and 1996 presidential campaigns and since.

Literally, soccer moms drive their children to play soccer. Soccer is considered a safer and more genteel competitive sport than American football, which is more prominent than soccer in mainstream American culture. At once, the soccer mom is associated with encouraging, if perhaps overscheduling, their children with activities, and with making personal sacrifices for their children's benefit (taking them to play), while perhaps remaining somewhat overprotective (by taking them to play soccer rather than, say, American football).

The term has found a life as shorthand for a stereotype, or set of stereotypes, far beyond its literal meaning.

Most widely, perhaps, they are associated with driving Volvos, minivans, or SUVs. Active pride in their children may be displayed, for instance, with membership in a Parent-Teacher Association, or with a bumper sticker boasting that her child is an honors student at their school.

The term was used as the basis for the song "Volvo-Driving Soccer Mom" by the band Everclear. Though the song departs from the sterotype in that the "soccer mom" in the song has something of a checkered past and this is not necessarily part of the stereotype.

In politics
Soccer moms were considered an important constituency in Bill Clinton's two presidential wins. Starting, perhaps, with Republican victories in the 1994 Congressional elections, and into the 2000s with the presidential victories of George W. Bush, they have been identified increasingly with the Republican party. However, this correlates more with other demographic characteristics, such as their place in the red state-blue state divide, than with their identification as soccer moms.

In fact, inasmuch as both parties seek to appeal to her, the model soccer mom in political discourse is a moderate, hopefully persuadable swing voter. She's assumed to be especially concerned with education policy, health care and tax levels, especially as they impact her own family. Since the September 11, 2001 attacks, homeland security has emerged as a concern to the extent that a new term, "security mom," has come into use.

Political and social conservatism
Since the late 1990s and into the 2000s, the soccer mom has been increasingly associated with political conservatism, with evangelical or fundamentalist Christianity, and with socially conservative concerns such as opposition to obscenities in rock and hip hop music and sex and violence in film, television, and video games. Some "extreme soccer moms" even complain about sad music, claiming that it makes children suicidal. Because of this, many gamers and anime fans often use soccer moms as scapegoats for censorship in the media.

These attributions, however, are in no way universal. A political campaign targetting soccer moms in a liberal environment like Boston or San Francisco is probably talking about a much more secular, socially and politically moderate-to-liberal audience.

In Canada
Usage in Canada is broadly similar to usage in the United States, but it is taken closer to literally, having much to do with active, busy parenting and generally having less to do with race, little if anything to do with religion, little to do with political affiliation except for a tendency to moderation, and with very little correlation to social conservatism. Middle class status, a skew towards minivan or SUV ownership, and to a lesser extent university or college education and suburban or exurban residence are associated with the term. Much of the meaning underlying "soccer mom" has also transferred to the term "hockey mom".



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Índice de mensagens

 English Made in Brazil -- English, Portuguese, & contrastive linguistics
Soccer mom  –  Tiago T.  16/NOV/2005, 8:00 PM
Soccer mom  –  Miguel Vieira  16/NOV/2005, 8:06 PM
Soccer mom  –  Geovaine  16/NOV/2005, 8:09 PM
Soccer mom  –  Dale/RS  16/NOV/2005, 8:23 PM
Soccer mom  –  Tiago T.  16/NOV/2005, 9:09 PM
Soccer mom  –  Dale/RS  16/NOV/2005, 11:26 PM
Soccer mom  –  Tiago T.  16/NOV/2005, 11:53 PM
Soccer mom  –  Dale/RS  17/NOV/2005, 12:31 AM
Soccer mom  –  Miguel Vieira  17/NOV/2005, 4:35 PM
Soccer mom  –  Geovaine  17/NOV/2005, 5:51 PM
Soccer mom  –  Johannes  17/NOV/2005, 6:26 PM
Soccer mom  –  Miguel Vieira  17/NOV/2005, 9:03 PM
 Soccer mom  –  Marcelo  17/NOV/2005, 9:15 PM
Soccer mom  –  Miguel Vieira  18/NOV/2005, 5:21 PM

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