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Autor:  m robertson
E-mail:  não-disponível
Data:  03/OUT/2003 10:45 PM
Assunto:  Re: Start to or Start ...ing?
 
Mensagem:  - Start reading
- Stop crying
- Like singing

Practical English Usage, Michael Swan, OUP, (91 ed)

“-Ing form or infinitive? – some verbs can be followed by either .. usu with a difference of meaning.” (339)

Start
“Start and begin can be followed by -Ing form or infinitive structures, usually with no real difference of meaning. It is perhaps more common to use an -Ing form when we are talking about the beginning of a long or habitual activity.

How old were you when you first started played the piano?

The –ing form is not used after a progressive form of begin or start

I was beginning to get angry.

Stop
“Stop + -ing = stop what one is doing or does,

I really must stop smoking

Stop + infinitive = make a break or pause in order to do something

Every hour I stop work to smoke a cigarette.” (339)

Like
“Like + -ing = enjoy

I like walking in the rain.

Like + infinitive = choose to; be in the habit of; think it right to

"I like to get up early so I can get plenty of work
done before lunch.”

Nb ‘would like’ = wish or want – always followed by infinitive

What would you like to do?

(US/Brit diff - Like + -ing = enjoy – infinitive also used - Like + -infinitive = enjoy)


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“… some grammarians prefer to avoid the terms participle and gerund .” referring to A Grammar of Contemporary English by Quirk Greenbaum, Leech Svartvik (Longman)


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 English Made in Brazil -- English, Portuguese, & contrastive linguistics
Start to or Start ...ing?  –  Jorge Santos  02/OUT/2003, 5:37 PM
Re: Start to or Start ...ing?  –  Elsa  02/OUT/2003, 6:16 PM
Re: Start to or Start ...ing?  –  Jorge Santos  02/OUT/2003, 6:33 PM
Re: Start to or Start ...ing?  –  Wagner  02/OUT/2003, 7:17 PM
Re: Start to or Start ...ing?  –  Ronaldo Cardoso  02/OUT/2003, 9:51 PM
Re: Start to or Start ...ing?  –  michael robertson  03/OUT/2003, 6:28 AM
Re: Start to or Start ...ing?  –  Bruno  03/OUT/2003, 6:15 PM
 Re: Start to or Start ...ing?  –  m robertson  03/OUT/2003, 10:45 PM

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