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Autor:  michaelr
E-mail:  não-disponível
Data:  27/OUT/2003 10:49 AM
Assunto:  Re: Wish and Hope
Mensagem:  M Swan para 297 The verb hope is often followed by a present tense with a future meaning, especially in the first person I hope she likes the flowers I hope the cavalry arrive soon He notes a contrast in the negative, regarding the position of the negation – compare: I don’t think/suppose/expect/believe she’ll come And I hope she doesn’t come (not: I don’t hope she comes) With hope the negative is attached to the verb following it/to the verb which follows To talk about confident hopes or plans, hope can be followed by an infinitive (ie base form with to) I hope to spend a year in America after I finish school Wish “So, I'm confused about the correct tense to use with "wish".” Marlon As Pat demonstrated with his examples wish is followed by a verb in the ‘past’ tense "I wish we could win tonight" "I wish it wouldn't rain tomorrow" "I wish you wouldn't do that" M Swan - When wish is used like this, there is a problem of ‘sequence of tenses’. The verb which follows wish does not have the tense which corresponds to the meaning, but one which is ‘more past’. But the problem only exists if the distinction is regarded as referring exclusively to a temporal difference. Take one step back and the problem disappears. The temporal distinction is too narrow and many examples cannot be explained by it and so are regarded as ‘problems’. The remote/proximate distinction which includes past/present, likely/unlikely, formal/informal and direct/indirect speech categories explains the putatively ‘contradictory’ uses of the ‘past’ verb forms. I suggest the verb form after hope is not a time-based use, but more broadly a use of the remote form, in this case referring to unreality. The trick is not treat the verb as always time-based; to recognized that the go/went contrast may reflect a time difference but in other cases refers to a contrast between reality/unreality – certainty/uncertainty. M Swan at para 632: (full quote) "Wish is also used in quite a different way, to say that we would like things to be different from what they are. I wish (that) I was handsome. I wish (that) I hadn’t said that. When wish is used like this, there is a problem of ‘sequence of tenses’. The verb which follows wish does not have the tense which corresponds to the meaning, but one which is ‘more past’. In the first example above, a person who is not handsome (present tense) says he wishes he was handsome; a past tense is used to express a present meaning In the other example, a past meaning (somebody said something) is used with a past perfect tense (I hadn’t said.. ). This is rather like what happens in conditional sentences and reported speech." end I hate to criticize MS but his explanation is muddled and reflects an incorrect identification of the structures and their application to the verb Although, past and other tenses are real categories in the language, the choice of verb in this case involves a decision based on a real/unreal spectrum, not a time (present/past/future) spectrum. The essential point is that the expression past tense is applied too broadly, in this case the distinction which determines the verb form is not time based. The distinction is real versus unreal – actual versus hoped for – the ‘so-called’ past forms are part of a larger categorization ‘remote’ form which does not necessarily carry a time sense.

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 English Made in Brazil -- English, Portuguese, & contrastive linguistics
Wish and Hope  –  Marlon  26/OUT/2003, 5:51 PM
Re: Wish and Hope  –  pat  26/OUT/2003, 8:41 PM
 Re: Wish and Hope  –  michaelr  27/OUT/2003, 10:49 AM
Re: Wish and Hope  –  Met Amb  28/OUT/2003, 2:26 AM

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