My two-pence worth.
Well, when it comes to language descriptions when we don´t know how to express a
description or definition in exact words, we get a "close" defintion.
To me, your question could lead to hundreds of answers, so it would be difficult to cover every thing related. In other words, there was not a translation/version that fits to all cases, context is needed in each case.
Close could be in sense, in meaning, in sensory experiences, close translation of a word, a concept...the closest substitute/equivalent word for...so many things!
Anyway, some can be of use in the future, enjoy some of them.
The translators of the Septuagint faced the problem of how to translate the four-letter name of God into Greek. They could have chosen to transliterate it into Greek letters, but Greek didn't include the H or V/W sounds of Hebrew, so there were no Greek letters for these sounds. The closest they could get was ΙΑΟΥΕ which is pronounced 'ee-ah-oo-eh'. This was not close enough to the real name for the Jews, so they decided not to translate it at all.
The other letters are:
A. In English there is no sh. 'a' as pronounced in Swedish. The closest would be the 'uh' sound in 'blunt'(Ex. 'hatt'=hat) The long
one is darker, like in 'a' in 'father'. (Ex. 'hat'=hate). Pretty similar languages huh? This may seem daunting at first to keep track of long and short vowels, but you'll learn.
Useful Elvish Phrases
What's up, Doc? Man marta, envinyatar ?
 Here envinyatar is the closest possible translation of 'Doc'. Literally it means 'renewer', but is also used with the meaning of 'healer'.
The French concept of laïcité is often difficult to understand for foreigners, in part because the word itself is not easy to translate. As it signifies the strict separation of Church and State, the closest approximation in English is secularism. However, that does not fully convey the importance of laïcité in France.
I still haven't found a proper Latin word for my phobia, so I usually call it Ballistophobia, which was the closest I found - it means 'Fear of bullets'...
closest in taste, form, shape etc in cooking:
The best cheese curds are made from Cheddar or Gouda. These must also be extremely fresh. Fresh curds will 'squeak' a little when bitten. Cheese curds have a firm consistency and melt only partially on the hot chips. Partially-melted cheese gives the poutine a good texture and keeps it from being a soggy mess. Where fresh cheese curds cannot be found, the closest substitute is probably mozzarella string cheese, chopped up.
Balti: Authentic baltis should use a very fragrant spice blend which justifies the higher cost. Sadly, many restaurants use a bhuna (see below) recipe, which is the closest match, and simply serve it in a different dish.
Bhuna: A good all-round dish. Not too bland, not too spicy. Traditionally made with onions, green pepper, and quite a lot of cumin. Cumin translates as jeera in and around India; this word sometimes lends its name to the dish.
Closest, when talking about sensory/living experiences
Fremde auf dem Pfad der Nachdenklichkeit is the book which remains the closest to Mühlenweg's actual experiences in Central Asia.
In Maths, the closest you get to a resolution of 10/3 is 3.3333333... (in a eight-digit calculator)
While working at the Dispensary, West was appointed Physician Accoucher  at the Middlesex Hospital.
 From the French, to give birth. Today the title is closest to obstetrician.
Rephrasing it: "The closest equivalent today to the original meaning would probably be Obstetrician."