GLOSSARY OF ESL ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS ---
GLOSSÁRIO DE SIGLAS E TERMOS RELATIVOS AO ENSINO E AO ESTUDO DE INGLÊS
Pedimos desculpas caso os links abaixo estejam desatualizados. Frequentemente sites mudam de endereço, tornando-se difícil manter todos os links constantemente atualizados numa lista extensa como esta.
AAAL - American Association for Applied Linguistics
AAIEP - American Association of Intensive English Programs
AASB - Association of American Schools of Brazil
AASSA - Association of American Schools of South America
AAVE - African American Vernacular English. O mesmo que "Black English", "Ebonics", "Black Vernacular English".
ABRATES - Associação Brasileira de Tradutores
ACCESS - Auxiliary Closed Captioned English with Simplified Spelling
ACCET - Accrediting Council of Continuing Education & Training
ACT - Australian Capital Territory
ACT - American College Testing's Examination - an evaluation test for undergraduate admission to colleges and universities in the U.S., equivalent to the SAT (exame de avaliação para cursos de graduação em universidades norte-americanas, equivalente ao SAT).
ACT ASSET - ACT Assessment of Skills for Successful Entry and Transfer
ACTFL - American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages
ACT PEP - ACT Proficiency Examination Program
AE - American English
AELTS - Aviation English Language Test Service
AIESEC - Association Internationale des Etudiants en Sciences Economiques et Commercial. Organização internacional que desde 1950 promove intercâmbio de jovens estudantes e profissionais recém-formados nas áreas de economia e administração, predominantemente.
ALEC - Association of Language Excellence Centres (England)
ALM - Audio-Lingual Method - a widely used language teaching approach popular in the 50s and 60s based structuralism and behaviorism. Classroom activities are primarily rote memorization and habit formation.
ALTE - Association of Language Testers in Europe.
AmE - American English
APIRS - Associação dos Professores de Inglês do Rio Grande do Sul
AQA - Assessment and Qualifications Alliance Órgão britânico que emite certificados de qualificação profissional, inclusive de proficiência em inglês.
ARELS - Association of Recognised English Language Schools (est.1940). An inspecting body for EFL/ESL/ESOL schools in the U.K. ARELS merged with FELCRO in the 1980s. Associação de escolas de inglês para estrangeiros na Inglaterra. A escola paga aproximadamente 1000 libras esterlinas por ano para tornar-se membro.
ARELS/FELCRO SCHOOLS - Schools which have been inspected by these two bodies, which merged in the 1980s.
ATA - American Translators Association.
ATPIESP - Associação Profissional dos Tradutores Públicos e Intérpretes Comerciais do Estado de São Paulo.
AYUSA - Academic Year in the USA. Uma organização norte-americana sem fins lucrativos, sediada em São Francisco, Califórnia, que oferece programas de intercâmbio para jovens adolescentes (15 a 18 anos).
BA - Bachelor of Arts. A common undergraduate degree (4 years of college). - Título de graduação.
BAAL - British Association of Applied Linguistics
BALEAP - British Association of Lecturers in English for Academic Purposes
BASCELT - the British Associaton of State Colleges in EFL Teaching represents state-owned EFL institutions in the U.K.
BATQI - British Association of TESOL Qualifying Institutions, a voluntary non profit association of UK educational institutions which offer courses leading to ESL/EFL teaching qualifications. Provides information to those seeking routes to becoming qualified TESOL professionals, maintains a code of practice for institutions offering TESOL programs and publishes a register of TESOL courses. Membership includes institutions offering courses ranging from short courses to PhD's. Fifteen non-teaching organizations with an interest in teacher qualifications are currently represented on the BATQI Advisory Council (ARELS, BAAL, BALEAP, the British Council, Accreditation Unit, CfBT, the College of Preceptors, the English Speaking Union; IATEFL, IELTDHE, NATECLA, RSA Examinations Board, SATEFL, Trinity College London, and UCLES).
BBC - British Broadcasting Company
BC - British Council
BC - British Columbia, Canadian State on the west coast
BE - Black English. Dialeto falado predominantemente por norte-americanos de raça negra.
BEC - Business English Certificate - a set of three examinations by the University of Cambridge - BEC Preliminary, BEC Vantage, BEC Higher - designed to test English language ability used in the context of business.
BrE - British English
BRITISH COUNCIL - a British information organization similar to USIS
BS - Bachelor of Sciece. A common undergraduate degree (4 years of college). - Título de graduação.
BVT - Bilingual Vocational Training
BULATS - Business Language Testing Service - one more of the many English proficiency tests created in England.
CAE - Certificate of Advanced English - the fourth of Cambridge's series of exams. Um dos 5 exames (nível 4) de avaliação de proficiência em inglês do sistema da Universidade de Cambridge, Inglaterra.
CAH - Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis
CALI - Computer-Assisted Language Instruction - Instruction in a second or foreign language provided via computer and intended to supplement (not replace) what is taught by a live teacher.
CALL - Computer-Assisted Language Learning. Veja CALL na grade curricular dos cursos de letras.
CAMBRIDGE EXAMS - Examinations of English proficiency leading to certificates of proficiency, popular in the U.K., Europe, the Middle East, and other areas.
CaMLA - Cambridge-Michigan Language Assessments. A not-for-profit collaboration between the University of Michigan and the University of Cambridge, two institutions in the field of language assessment, teaching, and research.
CAN - Communicative Acquisitionist Naturalistic. A theory of language instruction based on a group of mutually supportive theories
CanE - Canadian English
CAPLS - Canadian Association of Private Language Schools
CAT - Computer Adaptive Testing; Computer-Assisted Translation, Computer-Aided Translation.
CBT - Computer-Based Test or Computer-Based TOEFL
CCLB - Centre for Canadian Language Benchmarks. CCLB is a national, not-for-profit organization providing standards for assessing adult English as a Second Language in Canada.
CCM - Centro de Convívio (ou Convivência) Multicultural. Ambiente de língua e cultura estrangeira, elemento chave da metodologia de ensino de inglês da escola criadora e principal patrocinadora deste portal.
CCSE - Certificates in Communicative Skills in English. CCSE test the ability of candidates to use English communicatively in the four skills: reading, writing, listening and speaking. Each of the skills is assessed separately and can be entered for at any of four levels – Levels 1, 2, 3 and 4. Level 1 corresponds approximately to PET, Level 2 to a grade C/D in FCE, Level 3 approximates to the level of CAE and Level 4 to a grade B/C of CPE.
CEELT - Cambridge Examination in English for Language Teachers. Tests the English competency of non-native teachers of English.
CEF - Common European Framework (of Reference for Languages). Same as CEFR.
CEFR - Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. The CEFR provides a basis for the mutual recognition of language qualifications, thus facilitating educational and occupational mobility. It also helps to standardize the levels of English proficiency tests.
CEIBT - Certificate in English for International Business and Trade. Tests for high level English competency for the workplace.
CELT - Comprehensive English Language Test
CELTA - Certificate in English Language Teaching to Adults (Cambridge/RSA Teaching Certificate, formerly known as C-TEFLA)
CELTYL - Certificate in English Language Teaching to Young Learners in Language Schools
CfBT - Centre for British Teachers
CILTS - Cambridge Integrated Language Teaching Schemes (UCLES)
CLBA - Canadian Language Benchmarks Assessment
CLL - Community Language Learning. Método de ensino de línguas desenvolvido por Charles Curran, baseado em técnicas de aconselhamento psicológico.
CLT - Communicative Language Teaching. Communicative Language Teaching, também chamado Communicative Approach ou Functional Approach, é a versão britânica do movimento iniciado no início da década de 60 em reação ao audiolingualismo.
CNN - Cable News Network - the 24-hour US TV news service with world coverage, based in Atlanta, Georgia.
COTE - Certificate for Overseas Teachers of English - one of the certificate programs for teachers from the University of Cambridge. It was designed for non-native speakers of English and has been raplaced by the ICELT in 2005.
CPE - Certificate of Proficiency in English - the fifth and the most advanced of Cambridge's series of exams (roughly comparable to a score of 600-650 on the TOEFL). The CPE is the exam which many British universities request of foreign students. O mais avançado dos 5 exames de avaliação de proficiência em inglês do sistema da Universidade de Cambridge, Inglaterra.
CSIET - Council on Standards for International Educational Travel. Organização norte-americana sem fins lucrativos que estabelece padrões para programas de viagens educacionais e programas de intercâmbio para adolescentes em high school.
C-TEFLA - Certificate of Teaching English as a Foreign Language to Adults (Cambridge University).
DAT - Dental Admission Testing
DC - District of Columbia
DELTA - Diploma in English Language Teaching to Adults (Cambridge/RSA Language Teaching Scheme, to replace the D-TEFLA in September 1998)
DOTE - Diploma for Overseas Teachers of English - one of the teaching awards by the University of Cambridge for teachers who are non-native speakers of English. It was designed for non-native speakers of English and has been raplaced by the DELTA and the IDLTM in 2005.
D-TEFLA - Diploma of Teaching English as a Foreign Language to Adults (University of Cambridge).
EAD - English as an Academic Discourse - acronym used by Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. Refers to college courses designed to assist students who have difficulty reading, writing, or speaking English for academic purposes.
EAL - English as an Additional Language
EAP - English for Academic Purposes
EBE - English for Business and Economics
ECCE - Exam for the Certificate of Competency in English (Michigan University) - targeted at a lower level
ECPE - Exam for the Certificate of Proficiency in English (Michigan University) - targeted at a higher level.
EEP - English for Employment Purposes
EFL - English as a Foreign Language
EGP - English for General Purposes
EIL - English as an International Language
ELICOS - English Language Intensive Courses to Overseas Students. The ELICOS Association is the national professional association of accredited and government registered centres teaching English to overseas students in Australia.
ELIU - British Council English Languge Information Unit
ELPAC - English Language Proficiency for Aeronautical Communication
ELT - English Language Teaching/Training
ENL - English as a Native Language
EOP - English for Occupational Purposes
EPP - English for Professional Purposes
ESL - English as a Second Language.
ESLAT - English as a Second Language Assessment Test. Um teste de avaliação de proficiência em inglês semelhante ao TOEFL, ministrado pela University of Wisconsin.
ESOL - English for Speakers of Other Languages
ESP - English for Specific/Special Purposes
ESS - English for Social Sciences
EST - English for Science and Technology
ETS - Educational Testing Service
EVP - English for Vocational Purposes
FCE - First Certificate in English - the third of Cambridge's series of exams (roughly comparable to a score of 500 on the TOEFL and 5.7 on the IELTS).
FELCRO - Federation of English Language Course Organizations (Established in 1972). An inspecting body for EFL/ESL/ESOL schools in the U.K. FELCRO merged with ARESL in the 1980s.
FFS - Family Financial Statement
FLES - Foreign Language in Elementary School
GED - General Educational Development Test. A high school equivalency exam of the American Council on Education's (ACE) Center for Adult Learning and Educational Credentials. Exame equivalente ao supletivo no Brasil.
GMAT - Graduate Management Admission Test. The GMAT measures general verbal, mathematical, and analytical writing skills and currently consists of nine separately timed sections: seven 25-minute multiple-choiche sections and two separately timed 30-minute writing tasks. The total testing time is 4 hours. Teste de admissão a programas de mestrado e doutorado de universidades norte-americanas na área de Administração de Empresas. Ministrado pelo ETS, o mesmo instituto que ministra o TOEFL. Atualmente o custo do GMAT é de US$190, podendo ser feito no Brasil nas cidades de Belo Horizonte, Brasília, Curitiba, Fortaleza, Porto Alegre, Recife, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador e São Paulo.
GNVQ - General National Vocational Qualification; UK
GPA - Grade Point Average. Média total geral de notas escolares, expressa numa escala de 0 a 4. Para converter uma média expressa numa escala de 0 a 10 para uma escala de 0 a 4, divide-se o valor por 2,5. Por exemplo, se sua média total geral for 8, equivale a um GPA de 3.2.
GRE - Graduate Record Examination - an evaluation test for graduate admission to colleges and universities in the U.S. (exame de avaliação de conhecimentos para admissão a cursos de pós-graduação em universidades norte-americanas).
G-TELP - General Tests of English Language Proficiency. A test developed in the U.S. at the San Diego State University, by the International Testing Services Center. It has been administered as an English language proficiency test predominantly in countries such as China, Korea and Mexico. O G-TELP é um exame de avaliação de proficiência em inglês semelhante ao TOEFL e ministrado pela Universidade Estadual de San Diego.
IAESTE - International Association for the Exchange of Students for Technical Experience. Organização ligada à UNESCO, voltada ao intercâmbio cultural e profissional em áreas técnicas e ciências exatas.
IATEFL - International Association of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language
ICELT - In-service Certificate in English Language Teaching. Substitui o antigo Certificate for Overseas Teachers of English (COTE).
IDI - Intercultural Development Inventory. A paper-based, 50-item test to measure how a person or a group of people tend to think and feel about cultural difference.
IDLTM - International Diploma in Language Teaching Management. The most advanced of the of the University of Cambridge ESOL teaching awards.
IDP - International Development Programme (for Australian Universities and Colleges). IDP Education Australia is a not-for-profit company owned by Australia's Universities and key recruiter of international students to Australia.
IEERA - International English Education Research Association
IELTDHE - Institute for English Language Teacher Development in Higher Education (UK)
IELTS - International English Language Testing System. Veja também. Most UK universities specify an IELTS score as an entrance requirement for non-native speakers. IELTS is jointly managed by The British Council, The University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate (UCLES) and IDP Education Australia. (Equivalente britânico ao TOEFL; exame que avalia o desempenho em inglês de estrangeiros que pretendem estudar em universidades britânicas e australianas)
IIE - Institute of International Education, an American agency that promotes higher education and the exchange of students and professors worldwide.
ILE - Inglês como Língua Estrangeira
ILSA - Independent Language Schools Association - Associação de 18 escolas de idiomas independentes de São Paulo.
IPA - International Phonetic Alphabet or Association - A society founded in France in 1886 that seeks to promote the science of phonetics and its practical applications.
K12 - Kindergarten - 12th grade. Refere-se à formação educacional do indivíduo, desde jardim de infância até a conclusão do ensino médio.
KET - Key English Test - The most elementary of Cambridge's series of exams
L1 - Language 1 (the native language; a língua mãe)
L2 - Language 2 (the target language; a língua que se procura estudar ou assimilar)
LAD - Language Acquisition Device. A model of language learning in which a child is credited with an innate predisposition to acquire linguistic structure.
LAURELS - Latin American Union of Registered English Language Schools
LCCIEB - London Chamber of Commerce and Industry Examinations Board. Órgão britânico que emite certificados de qualificação profissional, inclusive de proficiência em inglês.
LEP - Limited English Proficient
LINC - Language Instruction for Newcomers to Canada
LL - Language Learning
LLBA - Linguistics and Language Behavior Abstracts
LSAT - Law School Admission Test
MAT - Miller Analogies Test
MATESL - Master of Arts in Teaching English as a Second Language (uma das mais altas graduações para professores de Inglês)
MBA - Master of Business Administration
MCAT - Medical College Admission Test
ME - Middle English
MELAB - Michigan English Language Assessment Battery
MET - Michigan English Test
MLA - Modern Language Association of America - The major professional organization of US college and university teachers of English and modern languages. Publisher of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers.
MT - Machine Translation. Tradução via software de computador.
MT - Mother Tongue - O mesmo que L1
MTELP - Michigan Test of English Language Proficiency
NAFSA - Association of International Educators. Promotes the exchange of students and scholars to and from the United States)
NATECLA - National Association for Teaching English and other Community Languages to Adults (UK)
NATESOL - National Association of Teachers of English for Speakers of Other Languages
NCTE - National Council of Teachers of English
NCVQ - National Council for Vocational Qualifications
NEAS - National ELICOS Accreditation Scheme, an Australian organization.
NEST - Native English Speaking Teacher
NL - Native Language - O mesmo que L1 e MT
NLP - Neurolinguistic Programming
NLLIA - National Languages an Literacy Institute of Australia
NNEST - Non-Native English Speaking Teacher
NNL - Non-Native Language
NNS - Non-Native Speaker
NS - Native Speaker
NVQ - National Vocational Qualification; UK
OE - Old English
OED - Oxford English Dictionary - o mais completo dicionário da língia inglesa, contendo mais de 500 mil entradas em 20 volumes. É editado pela Oxford University Press.
OET - Occupational English Test - an Australian language test for overseas qualified medical and health professionals seeking admittance to training programs or in order to practice their profession in Australia and whose first language is not English.
OPI - Oral Proficiency Interview (by the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages)
OUDLE/AET - Oxford University Delegacy of Local Examinations/Arels Examinations Trust (UK)
PET - Preliminary English Test - The second of Cambridge's series of exams.
PIE - Pacific Intercultural Exchange. Uma organização norte-americana sem fins lucrativos, sediada em San Diego, Califórnia, que oferece programas de intercâmbio para jovens adolescentes (15 a 18 anos).
PTE - Pearson Test of English. Teste de proficiência em inglês de origem britânica. Avalia apenas o listening, reading e writing.
RELSA - Recognised English Language Schools Association - An association of 18 EFL schools in England.
RELTA- RMIT English Language Test for Aviation - An association of 18 EFL schools in England.
RP - Received Pronunciation - refers to a variety of British English dialects representing the accent of educated BrE, and popularly known as the King's English, the Queen's English, BBC English, Oxford English, and Public School English.
RPG - Role Playing Games
RSA - Royal Society of Arts (also RSA Examinations Board); UK
RSA/Cambridge C-TEFLA - Certificate of Teaching English as a Foreign Language to Adults. A professional qualification for prospective EFL teachers.
RSA/Cambridge D-TEFLA - Diploma of Teaching English as a Foreign Language. Advanced qualification for EFL teachers who have already completed the C-TEFLA.
SAE - Standard American English
SAT - Scholastic Assessment (Aptitude) Test - an evaluation test for undergraduate admission to colleges and universities in the U.S. The SAT takes three hours an forty-five minutes and measures verbal and mathematical abilities. Exame de avaliação de conhecimentos para admissão em cursos de graduação em universidades norte-americanas. A pontuação alcançada no SAT juntamente com a análise do histórico escolar do aluno é que vai determinar sua aceitação ou não na universidade. O SAT é exigido pela maioria das universidades nos EUA e por muitas de outros países.
SATEFL - Scottish Association of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language
SCT - Sociocultural Theory - a theory of human development based on Vygotsky's work.
SEVIS - Student and Exchange Visitor Information System - the new system developed by the U.S. Government to keep track of all exchange visitors (J visas) and international foreign students (F & M visas) during their stay in the United States. SEVIS replaced an old manual, paper-driven procedure and is now automated in real time; accurate information is updated and maintained through the use of a web-based application. SEVIS has enabled schools and exchange program sponsors to transmit electronic information and event notifications, via the internet, to the Department of Homeland Security and the U.S. Department of State.
SFL - Systemic Functional Linguistics. A theory of language centred on language functionality.TEAP - Teaching English for Academic Purposes
SLA - Second Language Acquisition
SLACC/I - Second Language Acquisition through Classroom Communication/Interaction
SOLOM - Student Oral Language Observation Matrix - a matrix of descriptions used to assess an English learner's oral proficiency, developed by the California Department of Education. Um sistema de avaliação de proficiência oral em inglês usado no estado da Califórnia, EUA.
SSS - Simplified Spelling Society
STT - Student Talkink Time. O tempo que o(s) aprendiz(es) fala em uma situação de sala de aula.
SVQ - Scottish Vocational Qualifications
TA - Teaching Assistant
TBL - Task-Based Learning - a theory of second language learning associated with Krashen's Natural Approach and the communicative approaches.
TEFL - Teaching English as a Foreign Language
TEFLA - Teaching English as a Foreign Language to Adults
TEFOL - Teaching English as a Foreign Language
TEIL - Teaching English as an International Language
TELP - Test of English Language Proficiency, o mesmo que G-TELP
TELUS - Teaching English Learners in University Settings
TESL - Teaching English as a Second Language
TESOL - 1)Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages; 2)Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (professional organization)
TESP - Teaching English for Specific/Special Purposes
TESS- The English Spelling Society. Organização internacional criada em 1908 na Inglaterra para conscientizar o público e trazer à discussão os problemas causados pela acentuada irregularidade entre o sistema ortográfico do inglês e sua interpretação oral. Veja também: http://spellingsociety.org/
TEYL - Teaching English to Young Learners
TKT - Teaching Knowledge Test, a new test about teaching English to speakers of other languages by the University of Cambridge that corresponds to very basic skills. There are no formal entry requirements. However, anyone wishing to take TKT is strongly advised to have at least an intermediate level of English. Mais um dos muitos exames da Cambridge University. É o menos avançado de uma nova geração de exames que conferem um certificado para ensino de inglês, voltado a professores de escolas primárias e secundárias em países onde pouco se fala inglês.
TL - Target Language. Língua-alvo; a língua estrangeira que se deseja aprender.
TOEFL - Test of English as a Foreign Language. Test to measure English skills of prospective entrants to most U.S.and Canadian universities, and also accepted by several British universities. (Exame que avalia o desempenho em inglês de estrangeiros que pretendem estudar em universidades norte-americanas ou canadenses. Também aceito por várias universidades britânicas).
TOEIC - The TOEIC (pronounced "toe-ick") is a Test of English for International Communication. It is broken down into two halves: reading and listening comprehension. Employees of international businesses, recruits and business students might take the test, as it is primarily used for recruitment, evaluation purposes. The TOEIC is not a test for admission to universities for students that are not native to the host country (as are the TOEFL, the IELTS and the CPE). College students, graduates and business people may take the TOEIC in their home countries for all sorts of reasons except academic administration. (The TOEIC seems to be most popular in Japan)
TOLES - Test of Legal English Skills. Examination for lawyers, law students and interns to prove their ability to cope with everyday practical tasks in English.
TOT - (tip-of-the-tongue) refers to the difficulty of not having the right word come readily to mind.
TPR - Total Physical Response. Método de ensino de línguas desenvolvido por James Asher e baseado em atividade física em resposta a comandos proferidos na língua estrangeira.
TRINITY COLLEGE CERTIFICATE TESOL - A professional qualification certificate for prospective EFL teachers, available in the U.K.
TSE - Test of Spoken English. A TOEFL-related test. Um dos complementos do TOEFL.
TTT - Teacher Talking Time. O tempo que o professor fala em uma situação de sala de aula.
TWE - Test of Written English. A TOEFL-related test. Um dos complementos do TOEFL.
UCLA - University of California at Los Angeles
UCLES - The University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate. The Cambridge Examinations governing body.
UK - United Kingdom (Reino Unido)
ULCA - University Language Centres Australia. ULCA is a network of twenty-eight universities in Australia which offer English language courses to international students.
USIA - United States Information Agency. A U.S. government agency for dissemination of information, which existed from 1953 to 1999.
USIS - United States Information Service. A U.S. government agency for dissemination of information overseas.
USMLE - United States Medical Licensing Examination. Exame para estudantes de medicina estrangeiros que querem fazer residência médica ou pós-graduação nos EUA.
VESL - Vocational English as a Second Language. A specialized branch of ESL that deals with English language skills needed in the workplace.
VOA - Voice of America, the official external radio and television broadcasting service of the United States federal government.
YLE - Young Learners English Tests. Cambridge tests to assess the English of primary learners between the ages of 7 and 12.
YLTE - Young Learners Tests of English.
ZPD - Zone of Proximal Development. Term used by Vygotsky when referring to the potential cognitive development in a social setting providing collaborative and non-intrusive assistance. Termo criado por Vygotsky para referir-se ao potencial de aprendizado da pessoa quando assistida por alguém de maior experiência.
O Fim do Monolinguismo
- Language Acquisition x Learning
- The Communicative Approach
- Interlíngua e fossilização
- Tradução mental não funciona
- O que é talento para línguas?
- O bom aprendiz
Por que crianças aprendem melhor?
- O papel da escola
- O papel do governo
Como escolher um curso de inglês
- Nativo x não-nativo
- Bibliografia do professor de inglês
Rumos para o ensino de línguas
- Sinalização Ortográfica
- Interferência da Ortografia
- Regras de Pronúncia
- Pronúncia do Passado
- Vogais do Inglês e do Português
- Consoantes Inglês x Português
- Flapping Rule
- Acentuação Tônica (Word Stress)
- Rhythm & Vowel Reduction
- Can & can't
- Dicas sobre pronúncia
Word Formation (Morfologia)
- Palavras de Múltiplo Sentido
- English Lexical Ambiguity
- Make, Do, Take & Get
- Contrastes Idiomáticos
- Verbos Irregulares
- Perfect Tense
- To & For
- Phrasal Verbs
- Preposition-Dependent Words
Interpretação de Textos (Reading)
- Como não redigir e como traduzir